Welcome to Accelerated Study Notes

Message of the day (that never changes)

All systems are normal right now.

If you do get locked out for whatever reason, you can always email us at admin@acceleratedstudynotes.com to recover your password, or follow the instructions on the screen.

Registering a new account

If for any reason you can not see the captcha (try to refresh page using Ctrl + Shift + r or Ctrl + Shift + F5), please email us at admin@acceleratedstudynotes.com with your desired username and email. We will create the account for you and a random password will be emailed to you.

Captcha Error

If you do not see the captcha, please either refresh or navigate to http://www.acceleratedstudynotes.com/wp-login.php

Member Login

Lost your password?

Registration is closed

Sorry, you are not allowed to register by yourself on this site!

You must either be invited by one of our team member or request an invitation by email at info {at} yoursite {dot} com.

Note: If you are the admin and want to display the register form here, log in to your dashboard, and go to Settings > General and click "Anyone can register".

IGCSE Coordinated Science: Movement in and out Cells

By (Administrator)

2.2 Movement in and out Cells

1 Define diffusion

Diffusion is the net movement of molecules from a region of  higher concentration to a region of  lower concentration down a concentration gradient, as a result of their random movement

2 Describe the importance of diffusion of gases and solutes and of water as a solvent.


  • Necessary for gas exchange in all living organisms
  • Necessary for obtaining Carbon Dioxide and releasing oxygen during photosynthesis.

Solutes (liquids)

  • Dissolved salts dissolve through root hair cell.
  • Absorption of dissolved food material in many organisms, like amoeba, bacteria and fungi is carried out through diffusion.
  • Some digested food material is absorbed by diffusion

Water as a solvent

  • Plants cannot obtain minerals unless they are dissolved in water
  • Enzymes and hormones cannot be secreted unless they are dissolved in water
  • Excretory products cannot be excreted unless they are dissolved in water.

3 Define osmosis (Supp. only)

Osmosis the diffusion of water molecules from a region of their higher concentration (dilute solution) to a region of their lower concentration (concentrated solution), through a partially permeable membrane.

4 Describe the importance of osmosis in the uptake of water by plants, and its effects on plant and animal tissues.


The importance of osmosis

Plants gain water through osmosis in their roots from the soil. Without a water potential gradient,water will be loss from the roots . Plant cells contain vacuoles, which, if not full with water, will cause the cell to become flaccid. If all the cells in a leaf become flaccid, the whole leaf will become flaccid, hence causing the plant to wilt. Plant cells therefore need water to remain turgid and keep firm.If an animal cell surrounded with a high water potential, osmosis will take place, and if the water is not expelled some way or another, the cell will burst. This is because an animal cell doesn’t have a cell wall to keep it strong. If an animal cell is surrounded with low water potential, the water in the cytoplasm will diffuse outwards, causing the cell to shrink.

5 Describe and explain the importance of a water potential gradient in the uptake of water by plants.

The water potential determines whether the plant cell would be turgid or plasmolysed.
Since title says “uptake”, it means the plant cell taking in water.

If the surroundings has a higher water potential than the plant cell,  water molecules moves into the plant cell via osmosis. When the plant cell has sufficient water, it becomes turgid. The cell wall prevents the cell from bursting.

Turgor pressure is exerted when the plant cell is swollen. This keeps the plant upright.




Tags: , , ,

7 Responses to IGCSE Coordinated Science: Movement in and out Cells

  1. leeenaxx on April 14, 2014 at 3:54 AM

    Thank you so much x

  2. zainab on April 10, 2013 at 8:22 PM

    are you 100% sure of these information? because am not going to study thses things from the book and if i studied them do i have to go back to the book

  3. sahaj sahani on November 5, 2012 at 10:45 AM

    it worrked

  4. Ryan on September 15, 2012 at 2:54 AM

    “Without a water potential gradient,water will be loss from the roots, which will cause” Will cause what??

    • Sophie Larminie on December 18, 2012 at 3:26 AM

      water will be lost from the root, which will cause the cells to become flaccid and the plant to wilt, this (plasmolysis) usually kills the plant as the cell membrane becomes damaged as it tears away from the cell wall,

      Hope this helps

    • swalloff on January 15, 2013 at 4:50 PM

      haha hey soph

Leave a Reply